How to Call JavaScript Functions: A Comprehensive Guide

JavaScript is a powerful programming language that allows developers to add interactivity and dynamic behavior to web pages. One of the fundamental concepts in JavaScript is the ability to call functions. In this article, we will explore the various ways to call JavaScript functions and provide you with a step-by-step guide. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced developer, this article will help you understand the different techniques and best practices for calling JavaScript functions effectively.

JavaScript functions are blocks of reusable code that perform specific tasks. They allow you to organize your code, make it modular, and promote code reuse. Calling a function means executing the code within the function body at a specific point in your program.

Calling Functions with Parentheses

function test(){
var x=10;
test(); // Calling the function

By including parentheses after the function name, you invoke the function and execute its code.

Passing Arguments to Functions

JavaScript functions can also accept parameters or arguments. Arguments are values that you can pass to a function to customize its behavior. You can pass arguments by including them within the parentheses when calling the function. Here’s an example:

function test(name) {
  console.log("Hi, " + name);
test("techintricks"); // Calling the function with an argument

In this example, the test function accepts a name parameter, which is then used to personalize the greeting.

Returning Values from Functions

Functions in JavaScript can also return values. You can use the return statement to specify the value that the function should produce. Here’s an example:

function test(x,y){
let z=x+y;
return z;
let addition=test(1,2); // Calling the function and storing the result
console.log(addition);//output 3

In this example, the test function returns the sum of two numbers, which is then stored in the addition variable.

Calling Functions as Event Handlers

JavaScript functions are often used as event handlers to respond to user interactions. You can assign a function to an event, such as a button click, and the function will be called when the event occurs. Here’s an example:

<button onclick="test()">Click me</button>

In this example, the test function will be called when the button is clicked.

Calling Functions using Arrow Functions

Arrow functions are a concise syntax for writing JavaScript functions. They provide a more compact way to define functions and have some differences in how they handle the this keyword. Here’s an example:

let sayHello = () => {
  console.log("Hello, World!");

sayHello(); // Calling the arrow function

Arrow functions are particularly useful when working with callback functions or when you want to preserve the value of this from the surrounding context.

Asynchronous Function Calls

JavaScript supports asynchronous programming, where functions can be called asynchronously and continue execution without waiting for the result. Asynchronous function calls are commonly used when dealing with network requests, timers, or other time-consuming operations. Promises and async/await are popular techniques for handling asynchronous calls in JavaScript.

Error Handling and Exception Handling

When calling JavaScript functions, it’s essential to handle errors and exceptions gracefully. You can use try-catch blocks to catch and handle exceptions that may occur during function execution. Error handling ensures that your program continues to run smoothly even in the presence of unexpected errors.

Best Practices for Calling JavaScript Functions

To ensure clean and maintainable code, it’s essential to follow some best practices when calling JavaScript functions. These include giving meaningful names to functions, avoiding excessive nesting, and keeping your functions small and focused.


In conclusion, calling JavaScript functions is a fundamental concept that allows you to execute code and perform specific tasks. By understanding the various techniques and best practices for calling functions, you can write more efficient and maintainable JavaScript code. Remember to use parentheses, pass arguments, and handle return values appropriately. Additionally, explore advanced topics like asynchronous function calls and error handling to enhance your JavaScript skills.

A Beginner’s Guide to Create an Custom Post Type in WordPress !

WordPress is a popular content management system that allows users to create and manage websites with ease. One of the key features of WordPress is the ability to create custom post types, which enable you to organize and display different types of content on your website. In this beginner’s guide, we will walk you through the process of creating a custom post type in WordPress, step by step.

What is custom post type ?

Custom Post type is a post type where we can create our own post type according to requirement. Once a custom post type is registered, it gets a new top-level administrative screen that can be used to make changes in posts of that type.

Why we need Custom Post Type ?

To add additional functionality to our website. Once created , we can modify functionality of our website easily. Lets Understand with simple example.
Ex :- Suppose , We have resturant website and wants to add two different menu like menu-1 , menu-2. How can we add ?
Using wordpress default post we can create menu-1 easily but for menu-2 we have create another wordpress post type that is called as custom post type in which we can add more fields for more data.

Planning Your Custom Post Type

Before jumping into creating a custom post type, it’s essential to plan its structure and functionality. Consider the purpose of your post type, the specific data you want to collect, and how you want to display it on your website. This planning phase will help you define the parameters and settings required for your custom post type.

Registering the Custom Post Type

To create a custom post type, you need to register it with WordPress. This can be done by adding code to your theme’s functions.php file or by using a custom plugin. The registration process involves defining the labels, settings, and capabilities of your post type. Once registered, your custom post type will appear in the WordPress admin dashboard.

Customizing the Custom Post Type

After registering your custom post type, you can further customize its behavior and appearance. This includes modifying labels, adding support for specific features like thumbnails or comments, and setting up the post type’s capabilities and permissions. Customizing your custom post type ensures that it functions exactly as intended.

Displaying the Custom Post Type

Once you’ve created and customized your custom post type, you’ll want to display it on your website. This can be achieved by creating custom templates or modifying existing ones to accommodate the new post type. You can also utilize plugins and theme builders that provide easy-to-use interfaces for displaying custom post types.

Adding Custom Fields to the Custom Post Type

Custom fields allow you to collect additional data for your custom post type. They can be used to gather information such as author details, event dates, or product specifications. WordPress provides built-in support for custom fields, and you can also use plugins to enhance the functionality and appearance of your custom fields.

Implementing Taxonomies

Taxonomies are used to classify and organize content within your custom post type. They enable you to create hierarchical or non-hierarchical structures such as categories and tags. By implementing taxonomies, you can enhance the usability and discoverability of your content, making it easier for users to navigate your website.

Enabling Custom Post Type Archives

Archives allow you to display a list of all posts belonging to a specific custom post type. Enabling archives for your custom post type ensures that visitors can access and browse through your content efficiently. You can customize the archive template and use plugins to enhance the archive functionality with filtering and sorting options.

Customizing the Single Post View

The single post view is the page that displays an individual post of your custom post type. You can customize this view to match the design and layout of your website. By modifying the single post template, you can showcase the unique attributes of your custom post type and provide an engaging reading experience for your visitors.

Adding Custom Post Type Templates

In addition to customizing the single post view, you can create custom templates for other views related to your custom post type. These include the archive template, search results template, and category template. By designing these templates, you can ensure a consistent and cohesive presentation of your custom post type throughout your website.

Applying Styling to the Custom Post Type

To create a visually appealing custom post type, you can apply custom styles using CSS. By targeting the elements specific to your post type, you can modify their appearance, layout, and typography. This allows you to integrate your custom post type seamlessly with the overall design of your website and maintain a consistent visual identity.

Managing Custom Post Type Permalinks

Permalinks are the URLs that point to individual posts of your custom post type. It’s important to set up proper permalink structure for your custom post type to ensure search engine friendliness and user-friendly URLs. WordPress provides options to customize the permalinks and ensure they are easy to read and remember.

Troubleshooting Common Issues

While creating a custom post type, you may encounter certain issues or errors. These could range from incorrect template rendering to conflicts with other plugins or themes. Troubleshooting common issues involves identifying the problem, debugging the code, and seeking help from the WordPress community or support forums.

Steps to create a Custom Post type in WordPress !

  • Navigate to theme folder open functions.php file and add below code into that. If you are using child theme you can follow same procedures.
function wpdocs_kantbtrue_init() {
    $labels = array(
        'name'                  => _x( 'Recipes', 'Post type general name', 'recipe' ),
        'singular_name'         => _x( 'Recipe', 'Post type singular name', 'recipe' ),
        'menu_name'             => _x( 'Recipes', 'Admin Menu text', 'recipe' ),
        'name_admin_bar'        => _x( 'Recipe', 'Add New on Toolbar', 'recipe' ),
        'add_new'               => __( 'Add New', 'recipe' ),
        'add_new_item'          => __( 'Add New recipe', 'recipe' ),
        'new_item'              => __( 'New recipe', 'recipe' ),
        'edit_item'             => __( 'Edit recipe', 'recipe' ),
        'view_item'             => __( 'View recipe', 'recipe' ),
        'all_items'             => __( 'All recipes', 'recipe' ),
        'search_items'          => __( 'Search recipes', 'recipe' ),
        'parent_item_colon'     => __( 'Parent recipes:', 'recipe' ),
        'not_found'             => __( 'No recipes found.', 'recipe' ),
        'not_found_in_trash'    => __( 'No recipes found in Trash.', 'recipe' ),
        'featured_image'        => _x( 'Recipe Cover Image', 'Overrides the “Featured Image” phrase for this post type. Added in 4.3', 'recipe' ),
        'set_featured_image'    => _x( 'Set cover image', 'Overrides the “Set featured image” phrase for this post type. Added in 4.3', 'recipe' ),
        'remove_featured_image' => _x( 'Remove cover image', 'Overrides the “Remove featured image” phrase for this post type. Added in 4.3', 'recipe' ),
        'use_featured_image'    => _x( 'Use as cover image', 'Overrides the “Use as featured image” phrase for this post type. Added in 4.3', 'recipe' ),
        'archives'              => _x( 'Recipe archives', 'The post type archive label used in nav menus. Default “Post Archives”. Added in 4.4', 'recipe' ),
        'insert_into_item'      => _x( 'Insert into recipe', 'Overrides the “Insert into post”/”Insert into page” phrase (used when inserting media into a post). Added in 4.4', 'recipe' ),
        'uploaded_to_this_item' => _x( 'Uploaded to this recipe', 'Overrides the “Uploaded to this post”/”Uploaded to this page” phrase (used when viewing media attached to a post). Added in 4.4', 'recipe' ),
        'filter_items_list'     => _x( 'Filter recipes list', 'Screen reader text for the filter links heading on the post type listing screen. Default “Filter posts list”/”Filter pages list”. Added in 4.4', 'recipe' ),
        'items_list_navigation' => _x( 'Recipes list navigation', 'Screen reader text for the pagination heading on the post type listing screen. Default “Posts list navigation”/”Pages list navigation”. Added in 4.4', 'recipe' ),
        'items_list'            => _x( 'Recipes list', 'Screen reader text for the items list heading on the post type listing screen. Default “Posts list”/”Pages list”. Added in 4.4', 'recipe' ),
    $args = array(
        'labels'             => $labels,
        'description'        => 'Recipe custom post type.',
        'public'             => true,
        'publicly_queryable' => true,
        'show_ui'            => true,
        'show_in_menu'       => true,
        'query_var'          => true,
        'rewrite'            => array( 'slug' => 'recipe' ),
        'capability_type'    => 'post',
        'has_archive'        => true,
        'hierarchical'       => false,
        'menu_position'      => 20,
        'supports'           => array( 'title', 'editor', 'author', 'thumbnail' ),
        'taxonomies'         => array( 'category', 'post_tag' ),
        'show_in_rest'       => true
    register_post_type( 'Recipe', $args );
add_action( 'init', 'wpdocs_kantbtrue_init' );


Creating a custom post type in WordPress opens up endless possibilities for organizing and presenting your content. By following the steps outlined in this beginner’s guide, you can confidently create your own custom post type, tailor-made to suit your website’s unique requirements. Embrace the flexibility and power of WordPress, and enjoy the enhanced functionality and user experience that custom post types bring.

Get Started with WordPress REST API: A Complete Guide using WP Hooks

WordPress has come a long way from being a simple blogging platform to a versatile content management system (CMS) that powers millions of websites across the globe. One of the powerful features it offers is the WordPress REST API, which allows developers to interact with the platform programmatically and build innovative applications. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll dive into the world of WordPress REST API, focusing on how to leverage its capabilities using WP hooks.

Making WordPress REST API Work for You

The WordPress REST API opens up a world of possibilities for developers to create dynamic and interactive websites, applications, and services. By harnessing the power of WP hooks, you can seamlessly integrate custom functionality into your WordPress site and craft a unique user experience. Whether you’re a seasoned developer or just starting, the REST API provides a flexible foundation for building innovative solutions that push the boundaries of what’s possible.

Benefits of Using WP Hooks with REST API

Integrating WP Hooks with the REST API opens up a world of possibilities for extending WordPress functionality. It enables developers to create custom endpoints, manipulate responses, and enhance user experience without compromising security or stability.

Setting Up Your Environment

Before diving into using WP Hooks with the REST API, it’s important to have a development environment ready. You can set up a local server using tools like XAMPP or use online platforms like WPEngine for testing.

Making API Requests with WP Hooks

WP Hooks provide methods to interact with REST API endpoints. You can use hooks like wp_remote_get and wp_remote_post to make requests and retrieve data from external sources. This flexibility enables you to integrate third-party services seamlessly.

What are the some key points of WordPress Rest API ?

Routes & Endpoints

route is URL where we can map it with http method like GET,POST etc. while an endpoint is a connection between an individual HTTP method and a route.
Ex : – /wp-json is a route, and when that route receives a GET request then that request is handled by the endpoint which displays what is known as the index for the WordPress REST API.


Request is represented by an instance of the WP_REST_REQUEST class , using this class we can store and retrieve information for current request. It is automatically generated when we make HTTP request to a registered API route.


We are getting data from the API in Response. The WP_REST_RESPONSE class provides a way to interact with the response data returned by endpoints.


Schema’s are defined in data structured format. The schema structures API data and provides a comprehensive list of all of the properties the API can return and which input parameters it can accept.

Controller Classes

Using controller class we can manage the registration of routes & endpoints, handle requests, utilize schema, and generate API responses.

Creating an API by Using plugin

Using plugin , We can create an API.

  • Add WordPress REST API Basic Auth plugin.
  • Log in to your WordPress Dashboard and go to Plugins -> Add New. Click on the Upload Plugin button and select the plugin’s zip file or directly search Basic Auth from Search bar , you will get plugin name click on install button and after installation click on activate button to activate the plugin.
  • Once Basic Auth is installed, open CLI and authenticate an API request by utilizing the user flag.
    Ex : – curl -X GET –user username:password -i your curl url.

Practical Examples and Use Cases

To solidify your understanding, let’s explore practical examples such as creating a custom post endpoint, integrating with popular services like Google Maps, and automating social media sharing using WP Hooks.


require get_template_directory() . '/myapi/myfile.php';

Suppose if you want to create an API then create one file inside myapi folder name and below code into this.

add_action( 'rest_api_init', function () {
  register_rest_route( 'gp', '/listpost', array(
    'methods' => 'GET',
    'callback' => 'get_blog_data',
  ) );
} );

function get_blog_data(){
global $post;
$args = array('post_type'=>'post','numberposts' => 5);
$myposts = get_posts( $args );
foreach($myposts as $post){
$arr['thumbnail']=wp_get_attachment_image_src( $post->ID, 'full' );

return $dataArray;

Url should be – yourhostname/wp/wp-json/gp/listpost.


The WordPress REST API, combined with the power of WP Hooks, opens up endless possibilities for developers looking to create innovative and feature-rich applications. By following this guide, you’ve gained a solid foundation in utilizing these tools effectively.

Most Useful GIT Q&A Commands: Mastering Version Control

Git, a distributed version control system, has revolutionized the way developers collaborate and manage their codebases. Whether you’re a seasoned developer or just starting on your coding journey, understanding and mastering Git commands is crucial for efficient version control and seamless collaboration. In this article, we’ll explore the most useful GIT Q&A commands that will empower you to navigate the world of version control like a pro.

What is GIT Repository ?

A Repository is a file structure where git stores all the project based files. Git can either stores the files on the local or the remote repository.

What does Git Clone do ?

The command create a copy(or clone) of an existing git repository. Generally, It is used to get copy of the remote repository to the local repository.


What does the command git config do ?

The git config Command is a convenient way to set configuration options for defining the behavior of the repository, User information and preferences, git installation-based configurations, and many such things.

Ex : To setup your name and email address before using git commands, we can run the below commands.
git config –global “<<your_name>>”
git config –global “<<your_email>>”

What is conflict & how you will solve this ?

Git Usually handles features merges automatically but sometimes while working in a team environment, there might be cases of conflicts such as :
1. When two separate branches have changes to the same line in a file.
2. A file is deleted in one branch but has been modified in the other.

These conflicts have to be solved manually after discussion with the team as git will not be able to predict what and whose changes have to be given precedence.

What is the functionality of git is-tree ?

This command returns a tree object representation of the current repository along with the mode and the name of each item and SHA-1 value of the blob.

What does git status command do ?

git status Command is used for showing the difference between the working directory and the index which is helpful for understanding git in-depth and also keep track of the tracked and non tracked changes.

Define “Index” ?

Before making commits to the changes done, the developer is given provision to format and review the files and make innovations to them. All these are done in the common area which is known as ‘Index’ or ‘Staging Area’.

In the above image, the “staged” status indicates the staging area and provides an
opportunity for the people to evaluate changes before committing them.

What does git add command do ?

  • This Command adds files and changes to the index of the existing directory.
  • You Can add all changes at once using git add. Command.
  • You can add files one by one specifically using git add <filename> command.
  • You can add contents of a particular folder by using git add / <folder_name> / Command.

How you will create a git Repository ?

  • Have git installed in your system.
  • In order to create a git repository, create a folder for the project and then run git init .
  • This will create a .git file in the project folder which indicates that the Repository has been created.

What is git Stash ?

Git Stash can be used in cases where we need to switch in between branches and at the same time not wanting to lose edits in the current branch. Running the git stash command basically pushes the current working directory for other tasks.

What is the command used to delete a branch ?

  • To delete a branch we can simply use the command git branch -d [head].
  • To delete a branch locally, we can simply run the command : git branch -d <local_branch_name>
  • To delete a branch remotely, run the command: git push origin –delete <remote_branch_name>
  • Deleting a branching scenario occurs for multiple reasons. One Such Reason is to get rid of the feature branches once it has been merged into the development branch.

What are difference between Command git remote and git clone ?

git remote Command creates an entity in git config that specifies a name for a particular URL . whereas git clone creates a new git repository by copying an existing one located at the URL.

What is git Stash apply Command do ?

  • git stash apply command is used for bringing the work back to the working directory from the stack where the changes were stashed using git stash command.
  • This helps the developers to resume their work where they had last left their work before switching to other branches.

How git pull & git merge is connected to each other ?

git pull = git fetch + git merge

What is difference between Pull request & branch ?

Pull Request

This process is done when there is a need to put a developer’s change into another person’s code branch.


A branch is nothing but a separate version of the code.

Why do we not call git “pull request” as “push request” ?

Push request is termed so because it is done when the target repository requests us to push our changes to it.

Pull request is named as such due to the fact that the repo requests the target repository to grab(or pull) the changes from it.

What is commit object ?

A commit object consists of the following components :

a : A set of files that represents the state of a project at a given point in time.
b : Reference to parent commit objects.
c : A 40 character String termed as SHA-1 name uniquely identifies the commit object.

What command helps us know the list of branches merged to master ?

git branch –merged helps to get the list of the branches that have been merged into the current branch.
Note : git branch –no-merged lists the branches that have not been merged to the current branch.

What are the functionalities of git reset –mixed and git merge –abort ?

git reset –mixed command is used for undoing changes of the working directory and the git index.
git merge –abort command is used for stopping the merge process and returning back to the state before the merging occurred.


Congratulations! You’ve taken a significant step towards mastering Git. By understanding and utilizing these essential Git Q&A commands, you’ve equipped yourself with the tools to navigate version control confidently and collaborate seamlessly with fellow developers.