Beginner’s Level Java Automation Interview Q&A !

Are you a budding programmer or a job seeker preparing for a Java automation interview? Don’t fret; we’ve got you covered! In this comprehensive guide, we’ll walk you through some essential questions and answers that will help you ace your beginner-level Java automation interview. So, let’s dive right in and equip you with the knowledge and confidence to impress your potential employers.

Introduction to Java Automation

Java automation refers to the process of utilizing Java programming language for automating various tasks, primarily in software testing and quality assurance. Automation has become a pivotal aspect of software development, enhancing efficiency and accuracy throughout the testing lifecycle.

Why is Java Used in Automation Testing?

Java’s widespread adoption in automation testing is attributed to its platform independence, robustness, and extensive libraries and frameworks. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) enables seamless execution across different operating systems, making it an ideal choice for cross-platform testing.

Key Features of Java for Automation

Java boasts several features that make it a preferred language for automation:

  • Object-Oriented Nature: Java’s object-oriented paradigm promotes modular and organized code, simplifying maintenance and enhancing reusability.
  • Rich Standard Library: Java’s extensive library provides pre-built functions for common tasks, reducing development time.
  • Exception Handling: Java’s robust exception handling mechanism aids in creating stable and reliable automation scripts.
  • Community Support: Java’s large and active community ensures access to abundant resources, tutorials, and forums.

Setting Up the Java Development Environment

Before diving into Java automation, ensure you have a properly configured development environment. Follow these steps:

  • Download and install the latest Java Development Kit (JDK).
  • Set up a preferred Integrated Development Environment (IDE), such as Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA.
  • Configure the Java environment variables for seamless compilation and execution.

Best Practices for Java Automation

Adopt these best practices for efficient and maintainable automation scripts:

  • Clear and Descriptive Variable and Method Names
  • Modular Code Structure
  • Regular Code Reviews and Refactoring
  • Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) Integration

Common Interview Questions and Answers

1. What is Static Method in JAVA ?

Direct calling, Calling by class name.

2. Can I access Static method by using object reference?

Yes we can, but we got one warning that you need to access it via Direct or By class name.

3. Can we overload & override main method?

Overload-Yes, Override-No

4. What do you mean by Static keyword in Java?

Static means it is at class level not at instance level, we have static method, static variable & static inner
class. When we have any variable as static so it will remain same for all the instance of our classes, and
static/Private/Final methods can’t be over-ridden like if we have initialized any method as Static so we
cannot override it in any child class.

5. What do you mean by Exceptions in Java?

Exception is like any interruption in our normal flow. Like if we are running anything and we got issues in
our script this is we called exception, we have 2 types of exception Run Time & Compile Time. (checked &
Unchecked exceptions)

6. Can you tell me about difference between Throw and Throws keyword?

Throw is a keyword used inside a body of function. And Throws used while initializing any method. By
using Throw we can throw only one exception while for Throws we can declare multiple exceptions which
might occur in that particular function. Throws keyword followed by instance name and Throw keyword is
followed by class name of that exception.

7. Which locator you are using in your framework and why?

Mostly we used ID and Xpath because Id is the fastest and unique one and after that we prefer Xpath.
Anyways we have other locators as well like css , class name, tag name, Link text, Partial Link text.

8. What is Difference between list and set?

The main difference between List and Set is that Set is unordered and contains different elements,
whereas the list is ordered and can contain the same elements in it.

9. What is Run time polymorphism?

Run-Time Polymorphism: Whenever an object is bound with the functionality at run time, this is known
as runtime polymorphism. The runtime polymorphism can be achieved by method overriding. Java
virtual machine determines the proper method to call at the runtime, not at the compile time.

10. Why the main method is static?

Java main() method is always static, so that compiler can call it without the creation of an object or before
the creation of an object of the class. … Static method of a class can be called by using the class name only
without creating an object of a class.

11. What is Method overloading and overriding?

Method overriding is used to provide the specific implementation of the method that is already
provided by its super class. Method overloading is performed within class. Method overriding occurs in
two classes that have IS-A (inheritance) relationship. In case of method overloading, parameter must be

12. What is Use of constructor?

The purpose of constructor is to initialize the object of a class while the purpose of a method is to
perform a task by executing java code. Constructors cannot be abstract, final, static and synchronised
while methods can be. Constructors do not have return types while methods do.

13. Difference between static and non-static methods?

Static method uses complie time binding or early binding. Non-static method uses run time binding or
dynamic binding. A static method cannot be overridden being compile time binding. A non-static
method can be overridden being dynamic binding.

14. Can we declare many interfaces object class inside the interface class ?

Yes, you can define a class inside an interface. In general, if the methods of the interface use
this class and if we are not using it anywhere else we will declare a class within an interface.

15. What are Types of the assertion?

Selenium Assertions can be of three types: “assert”, “verify”, and ” waitFor”. When an “assert” fails, the
test is aborted. When a “verify” fails, the test will continue execution, logging the failure. A “waitFor”
command waits for some condition to become true.

16. What is Abstraction in java and exp?

In Page Object Model design pattern, we write locators (such as id, name, xpath etc.,) in a Page Class. We
utilize these locators in tests but we can’t see these locators in the tests. Literally we hide the locators
from the tests.

17. What is a super keyword in java?

The super keyword refers to superclass (parent) objects. It is used to call superclass methods, and to
access the superclass constructor. The most common use of the super keyword is to eliminate the
confusion between Superclasses and subclasses that have methods with the same name.

18. What is Difference between break and continue statement ?

Break statement resumes the control of the program to the end of loop and made executional flow
outside that loop. Continue statement resumes the control of the program to the next iteration of that
loop enclosing ‘continue’ and made executional flow inside the loop again.

19. What is Difference between Abstract class & interface?

Abstract class can inherit another class using extends keyword and implement
an interface. Interface can inherit only an inteface. Abstract class can be inherited using extends
keyword. Interface can only be implemented using implements keyword.

20. Have you used the action class and where it is used?

Using the Actions class in Selenium, we can implement the sendKeys() method to type specific values in
the application. That is how you use the actions class in Selenium with sendKeys() method. … The
perform() method is used to perform the series of actions that are defined.

21. What is the difference between checked and unchecked exceptions?

There are two types of exceptions: checked exception and unchecked exception. … The main difference
between checked and unchecked exception is that the checked exceptions are checked at compile-time
while unchecked exceptions are checked at runtime
checked exceptions –
unchecked exceptions –

22. What is Difference between this and super?

this keyword mainly represents the current instance of a class. On other hand super keyword represents
the current instance of a parent class. this keyword used to call default constructor of the same class.

23. What is the difference between length and length() in Java?

The length is an instance variable of an array in Java whereas length() is a method of String class

24. What is an abstract class?

Abstract Classes and Methods Abstract class: is a restricted class that cannot be used to create objects
(to access it, it must be inherited from another class). Abstract method: can only be used in an abstract
class, and it does not have a body. The body is provided by the subclass (inherited from).

25. What is Difference between Actions and Action?

Actions is a class that is based on a builder design pattern. This is a user-facing API for emulating complex
user gestures. Whereas Action is an Interface which represents a single user-interaction action.

26. How many times you can write catch block?

maximum one catch block will be executed. No, we can write multiple catch block but only one is
executed at a time.

27. What is Collection ?

Collection is called collection interface having methods which are common throughout all
collections. it is basically a class from java.util package which contains some methods which
we can use for collection objects . A collection represents a group of objects.
Collection – 1. List, 2. Set, 3. Queue


Encapsulation is defined as the wrapping up of data under a single unit. It is the mechanism that binds
together code and the data it manipulates.
Encapsulation can be achieved by: Declaring all the variables in
the class as private and writing public methods in the class to set and get the values of variables.
All the classes in an Automation Framework are an example of Encapsulation. In Page Object Model
classes, we declare the data members using @FindBy and initialization of data members will be done
using Constructor to utilize those in methods.


Polymorphism allows us to perform a single action in different ways. In Java polymorphism can be
achieved by two ways:

Method Overloading: When there are multiple methods with same name but different parameters then
these methods are said to be overloaded. Methods can be overloaded by change in number of
arguments or/and change in type of arguments.
In Selenium Automation, Implicit wait is an example of Method Overloading. In Implicit wait we use
different time stamps such as SECONDS, MINUTES, HOURS etc.

Method Overriding: It occurs when a derived class has a definition for one of the member functions of
the base class. That base function is said to be overridden.
In Selenium Automation, Method Overriding can be achieved by overriding any WebDriver method. For
example, we can override the findElement method
In assertion we have used overload because in assertion we used to like asset.true(actual, expected) and
second time we can use same assert.true(actual, expected, message).

30. How can you use interface and how it is different from Abstract class?

Abstract class may have Abstract and concrete methods, and there is not any compulsion in adding
abstract method in abstract class. But in Interface, we do have only abstract methods and we don’t need
to write abstract keyword in Interface this is by default public and abstract.


Embarking on a journey into Java automation can be both exciting and rewarding. Armed with the foundational knowledge provided in this guide, you’re well-equipped to take on beginner-level Java automation interviews with confidence. Remember to practice and apply these concepts in real-world scenarios to solidify your understanding. Good luck on your automation journey!