Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers: Complete Guide

Are you gearing up for a manual testing job interview? As you prepare to showcase your skills and expertise, it’s crucial to have a solid grasp of the most commonly asked manual testing interview questions and their insightful answers. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll dive deep into the world of manual testing, equipping you with the knowledge and confidence to ace your interview.

Common Interview Question

1. What is Manual Testing?

To verify Software or Requirement Manually it called as Manual Testing Where QA Team find bugs & Issues, defect without using any Tool. It insures whether Software or App meets as per the business requirements or not.
There are Multiple types of testing –

  • Black Box Testing
  • Grey Box Testing
  • White Box Testing

Advantage of Manual Testing :
More Reliable
Limited Cost
Easy to Learn for New People
Useful Product with short Life Cycle

2. What is Smoke Testing ?

To verify stability of an Application Where we check build is stable or not . Once Development is done so Development team will release a build and Testing Team will check the Build Whether they are able to download or Open URL or not that under comes in Smoke Testing

3. What is Sanity Testing?

Sanity Testing is also Part of Regression we can say, It verify to relationality of an Application or Software. We check Major functionalities of an Application we do not test deeply that is called Sanity Testing.

4. What is Regression Testing?

Its type of software Testing that is done to verify that code changes in the software doesn’t impact to existing functionalities or bug any fixes in the existing features.

Types of Regression Testing:

  • UI Regression
  • Retest All
  • Regression Test Selection
  • Complete Regression
  • Prioritization Regression

5. What is Functional Testing?

Functional Testing is to check the functionality and verify each function/feature of the software or an Application whereas non-functional testing Verifies usability, reliability, performance.

6. What is Difference between Smoke & Sanity Testing?

  • Smoke Testing is to verify stability of an application where Sanity Testing is to verify relationality of an application.
  • Smoke Testing is subset of acceptance Testing where Sanity Testing is subset of Regression Testing.
  • Smoke Testing is done by Testers or Developers both where Sanity Testing done by only Testers.
  • Smoke Testing is to verify critical functionalities where Sanity Testing is to verify new functionality like bug.
  • Smoke Testing verify entire system from end to end where Sanity Testing verify only particular Component.

7. What is Difference Between Error , Defect /Bug & Failure?

Error : Any incorrect human action that produces a problem in the system is called
an error.
Failure : The deviation identified by end user while using the system is called a
Defect/Bug : Deviation from the expected behavior to the actual behavior of the
system is called defect.

8. What is Verification & Validation ?

Verification :checks whether we are building the right system
•Verification typically involves.
Validation :Checks whether we are building the system right.
•Takes place after verifications are completed.
•Validation typically involves actual testing.
•System Testing

9. What is Difference between Static V/S Dynamic Testing ?

Static testing :It is an approach to test project documents in the form of Reviews,
Walkthroughs and Inspections.
Dynamic testing :It is an approach to test the actual software by giving inputs and
observing results.

10. What is Levels of Software Testing ?

•Unit Testing
•Integration Testing
•System Testing
•User Acceptance Testing(UAT)

11. What is difference between System Testing & Integration Testing ?

System Testing : Testing over all functionality of the application with respective client
•It is a black box testing technique.
•This testing is conducted by testing team.
•Before conducting system testing we should know the requirements.
•System Testing focusses on below aspects.
•User Interface Testing (GUI)
•Functional Testing
•NonFunctional Testing
•Usability Testing

Integration Testing : In Integration Testing, individual software modules are integrated
logically and tested as a group.
•Integration testing focuses on checking data communication
amongst these modules.
•Integrated Testing is white box testing technique.
•Integrated testing is conducted by the developers.
•Top Down Approach
•Bottom Up Approach
•Sandwich Approach(Hybrid)

12. What is difference between Black-Box , White-box & Grey-Box Testing ?

Black Box Testing : Testing conducts on functionality of the application whether it is
working according to customer requirements or not.
Ex: System Testing & UAT Testing

White Box Testing : White Box Testing
conducts on internal logic of the programs, Programming Skills are required.
Ex: Unit Testing & Integration Testing

Grey Box Testing : Both combination of white box and black box testing.
Ex: Database Testing

13.What is Graphical User Interface ?

There are two types of interfaces in a computer application.
•Command Line Interface is where you type text and computer
responds to that command.
•Graphical User Interface where you interact
with the computer using images rather than text.

14. What is Functional Testing ?
Its an Object Properties Coverage
•Input Domain Coverage (BVA, ECP)
•Database Testing/Backend Coverage
•Error Handling Coverage
•Calculations/Manipulations Coverage
•Links Existence & Links Execution
•Cookies & Sessions & Object Properties Testing

15. What is Database Testing ?

During Database testing Test Engineers validate the data w.r.t
database, Validates DML operations(Insert , Update, Delete & Select )SQL Language: DDL, DML, DCL etc..

16. What is DML Commands ?

DML Data Manipulation language Insert, update, select, delete .

17. What is difference between DCL & DDL Commands?

DCL Commit, roll back etc.
DDL Data Definition Langue Create , alter, drop

18. What is Error Handling Testing?

Validate error messages thrown by the application when we
provide invalid data , The error messages should be clear and easy to understand to the

19. What is difference between Cookies & Sessions ?

Cookie: Temporary internet files which are created at client side when
we open the web sites. These files contains User data.
Session :Sessions are time slots which are allocated to the user at the
serve side.

20. What is Non-Functional Testing?

•Performance Testing
•Load Testing
•Stress Testing
•Volume Testing
•Security Testing
•Recovery Testing
•Compatibility Testing
•Configuration Testing
•Installation Testing
•Sanitation Testing

21. What is difference between Load & Stress Testing ?

Load:Testing speed of the system while increasing the load gradually
till the customer expected number.
Stress:Testing speed of the system while increasing/reducing the
load on the system to check any where its breaking.

22. What is Volume Testing ?

Volume: Check how much volumes of data is able to handle by the

23. What is Security Testing?

•Testing security provided by the system.
•Access Control/Authorization

24. What is Compatibility Testing?

•Testing Compatibility of the system w.r.t OS, H/W & Browsers.
•Operating System Compatibility
•Hardware Compatibility (Configuration Testing)
•Browser Compatibility
•Forward & Backward Compatibility

25. What is Difference between Adhoc Testing & Monkey Testing ?

Adhoc : Software testing performed without proper planning and

Monkey : Testing is carried out with the knowledge of the tester about the
application and the tester tests randomly without following the

26. What is difference between Re-Testing & Regression Testing ?

  • Re-Testing: Testing functionality repetitively is called re-testing.
  • Re-testing gets introduced in the following two scenarios.
  • Testing is functionality with multiple inputs to confirm the business validation are implemented (or) not.
  • Testing functionality in the modified build is to confirm the bug fixers are made correctly (or)not.
  • Regression Testing: It is a process of identifying various features in the modified build where there is a chance of getting side effects and retesting these features.
  • The new functionalities added to the existing system (or) modifications made to the existing system.
  • It must be noted that a bug fixer might introduce side effects and a regression testing is helpful to identify these side effects

27.Explain Defect Life Cycle ?

28. What is Characteristics of good Test Case?

•A good test case has certain characteristics which are:
•Should be accurate and tests what it is intended to test.
•No unnecessary steps should be included in it.
•It should be reusable.
•It should be traceable to requirements.
•It should be compliant to regulations.
•It should be independent i.e. You should be able to execute it in any order
without any dependency on other test cases.
•It should be simple and clear, any tester should be able to understand it by
reading once.

29. What are QA/Testing Activities?

•Understanding the requirements and functional specifications of the application.
•Identifying required Test Scenario’s.
•Designing Test Cases to validate application.
•Execute Test Cases to valid application
•Log Test results ( How many test cases pass/fail ).
•Defect reporting and tracking.
•Retest fixed defects of previous build
•Perform various type of testing assigned by Test Lead (Functionality, Usability, User Interface
and compatibility) etc.,
•Reports to Test Lead about the status of assigned tasks
•Participated in regular team meetings.
•Creating automation scripts for Regression Testing.
•Provides recommendation on whether or not the application / system is ready for production.

30. What is RTM ?

  • % of Test cases Executed: No.of Test cases executed / Total No. of Test cases written ) * 100
  • % of test cases NOT executed: (No.of Test cases NOT executed/Total No. of Test cases written) * 100
  • % Test cases passed: (No.of Test cases Passed /Total Test cases executed) * 100
  • % Test cases failed: (No.of Test cases failed / Total Test cases executed) * 100
  • %Test cases blocked: (No.of test cases blocked / Total Test cases executed ) * 100
  • Defect Density: Number of defects identified per requirement/s: No.of defects found / Size(No. of requirements)
  • Defect Removal Efficiency (DRE): (A / A+B ) * 100 A-(Fixed Defects / (Fixed Defects + Missed defects) ) * 100.
    A-Defects identified during testing/ Fixed Defects
    B-Defects identified by the customer/Missed defects
  • Defect Leakage: (No.of defects found in UAT / No. of defects found in Testing) * 100
  • Defect Rejection Ratio: (No. of defect rejected /Total No. of defects raised) * 100
  • Defect Age: Fixed date Reported date
  • Customer satisfaction= No.of complaints per Period of time


In conclusion, mastering manual testing interview questions and answers is essential for showcasing your expertise and landing your dream job. By understanding the fundamental concepts, strategies, and scenarios covered in this guide, you’ll be well-equipped to excel in your manual testing interviews and contribute to the quality assurance of software applications. Good luck on your journey to becoming a successful manual tester!